Fundamentals Of Computer Essay

...Introduction A computer is an electronic machine, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, manipulate the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use. Computers process data to create information.  Data is a collection of raw unprocessed facts, figures, and symbols.  Information is data that is organized, meaningful, and useful. To process data into information, a computer uses hardware and software.  Hardware is the electric, electronic, and mechanical equipment that makes up a computer.  Software is the series of instructions that tells the hardware how to perform tasks. Characteristics of Computers 1> Automatic: Requires human intervention to start any task, solve problem but once initiated, it continues the job until its completed. 2> Speed: in terms of microseconds (10 power -6), nanoseconds(10 power -9), and even picoseconds (10 power -12). A powerful computer is capable of performing several billions simple arithmetic operations per second. Limited by hardware and software resources. 3> Accuracy: garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO). E.g. Human input error, programmer logic error. 4> Diligence: Unlike human beings, a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, and lack of concentration. 5> Versatility: Can perform...



A programming model is an abstraction of a computer system. For example, parallel computing, there are many possible models typically reflecting different ways processors can be interconnected. The most common are based on shared memory, distributed memory with message passing, or a fusion of the two. A programming language can support multiple paradigms. For example, programs written in C++ or Object Pascal can be purely practical, or purely object-oriented, or contain elements of both paradigms. Software designers and programmers choose how to use those paradigm elements. In object-oriented programming, programmers can think of a program as a collection of interacting objects, while in functional programming a program can be thought of as a sequence of stateless function evaluations. When programming computers or systems with many processors, process-oriented programming allows programmers to think about applications as sets of concurrent processes acting upon logically shared data structures. Many programming paradigms are as well known for what techniques they stop as for what they enable and to make programming easier, assembly languages were developed. Initially, computers were hard-wired and then later programmed using binary code that represented control sequences fed to the computer CPU. These replaced machine code functions with mnemonics and memory addresses with symbolic labels, which are some of history that was changed in computer programming.
A multi-paradigm programming language is a programming language that supports more than one programming paradigm. As Leda designer Timothy Budd puts it: "The idea of a multiparadigm language is to provide a framework in which programmers can work in a variety of styles, freely intermixing constructs from different paradigms." The design goal of such languages is to allow programmers to use the best tool...

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