Wildlife Conservation Essay Wikipedia En

The Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI) was founded in 1994 by Belinda Wright, its Executive Director, who was an award-winning wildlife photographer and filmmaker till she took up the cause of conservation.[1] From its inception, WPSI's main aim has been to bring a new focus to the daunting task of tackling India's growing wildlife crisis. It does this by providing support and information to government authorities to combat poaching and the escalating illegal wildlife trade - particularly in wild tigers. It has now broadened its focus to deal with human-animal conflicts and provide support for research projects.

With a team of committed environmentalists, WPSI is one of the most respected and effective wildlife conservation organisations in India. It is a registered non-profit organisation, funded by a wide range of Indian and international donors. The society’s board members include leading conservationists and business people.[2]


The WPSI works with government law enforcement agencies throughout India to apprehend tiger poachers and traders in tiger parts. WPSI also makes every effort to investigate and verify any seizure of tiger parts and unnatural tiger deaths that are brought to their notice.[2]


WPSI maintains a network of undercover agents and informants who gather intelligence on the illegal trade in endangered species.[2] WPSI's informers and agents are especially active in Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Sundarbans area.

In November, 2008, in one notable case, the notorious tiger poacher, "Dariya", was arrested by the Katni Forest Department, with information and assistance provided by Wildlife Protection Society of India.[3] Senior field investigators also maintain contact with personnel in lower courts, which is where most wildlife offences are tried. They liaise continuously with informers, forest officials and the police.[4] They are involved with elephant poaching and ivory trade investigations.[2]

Crime data

The WPSI Wildlife Crime Database has records of over 15,300 wildlife crimes involving more than 400 species that are targeted by wildlife traders and poachers. Data on wildlife crimes is received and processed daily with specially developed computer software. Important leads are verified and passed on to enforcement authorities for further action. In 2008 WPSI significantly expanded their database on tiger poaching and trade and related wildlife crimes. This data assists enforcement agencies in detecting wildlife crime and aids the apprehension and prosecution of criminals.[5]


WPSI conducts Wildlife Law Enforcement Workshops for enforcement agencies. Since 2000, it has undertaken over 25 workshops in 12 states across India. WPSI has given specialist presentations to the SVP National Police Academy, the National Institute of Criminology, the Central Bureau of Investigation, the Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Indian Revenue Service, the Wildlife Institute of India, tiger reserve authorities, and enforcement training centres.[6]


WPSI supports conservation projects for species as varied as the tiger, otter and sea turtle. Among these projects are: Support to Bandipur Tiger Reserve, Trade & Wildlife Crimes Grassroots NGO Support Network, Support to Corbett Tiger Reserve & Adjoining Forests, Support to Sundarbans Tiger Reserve, WPSI Tiger Protection Awards, Award for Information that Leads to Seizure of Tiger Parts, ‘Operation Kachhapa’, Conservation of the Olive Ridley Turtle, ‘Corridor to Survival’ - Landscape Conservation Plan for Elephant Management, Human-Elephant Conflict & Elephant Mortality in North Bengal, a film campaign on Otter Conservation, Indian Cranes and Wetlands Working Group and Animal- Human Conflict Management. They provide support to prosecution of wildlife court cases, public interest litigations, wildlife law publications and the Millennium Digest (1950-2003) on Wildlife & Ancillary Laws. They were instrumental in the resettlement of Van Gujjars outside Rajaji National Park. They have conducted research on Interactions between the Ladakhurial & livestock, interactions between snow leopardprey species & livestock, development of pugmark-based population monitoring, human-leopard conflict in Pune District, Maharashtra and effects of forest resource extraction on biodiversity.[7]


WPSI is actively involved in all of India's major wildlife conservation issues and have been in the forefront of media campaigns to highlight the importance of wildlife protection. WPSI prints and distributes educational posters about tiger and wildlife conservation and laws. The posters target the general population, highlight the need for conservation and encouraging the protection of wildlife and spelling out penalties for poaching and trading. More than 40,000 posters have been distributed by state forest departments and local NGOs in seven languages - Hindi, English, Kannada, Oriya, Assamese, Bengali and Malayalam.[8]


Some of the WPSI publications include: Shatoosh - The Illegal Trade, Skinning the Cat: Crime and Politics of the Big Cat Skin Trade, WPSI-Ranthambhore Tiger Census, May 2005, India’s Tiger Poaching Crisis, Tiger Poaching Statistics of India, A God in Distress: Threats of Poaching and the Ivory Trade to the Asian Elephant, Fashioned for Extinction: An Exposé of the Shahtoosh Trade, Handbook of Environment, Forest and Wildlife Protection Laws in India, Wildlife Crime: An Enforcement Guide (English & Hindi), Signed and Sealed: The Fate of the Asian Elephant, The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 - A Hand Guide With Case Law and Commentaries, A Brief Guide to The Wild Life (Protection) Act (English & Hindi), The Wild Life Protection Act - 1972 - as Amended with effect from 1 April 2003, Warden Alert (Newsletter on wildlife protection issues, English & Hindi editions) and Kachhapa (Newsletter on sea turtle conservation issues, in English).

They have produced documentary films including: Bones of Contention (a short film documenting the crises faced by wild tigers in India as a result of poaching and the illegal trade in tiger parts.), Birds of the Indian Monsoon (a 45-minute film on the lives of Kepladeo Sanctuary’s birds), The Killing Fields: Orissa’s Appalling Turtle Crisis (a documentary on the mass slaughter of olive ridley sea turtles along the coast of Orissa) and “…And Then There Were None” (a short documentary film which investigates the rampant poaching of otters in India).[8]


For The 2010 statute of the government of the District of Columbia, see Wildlife Protection Act of 2010.

The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972
An Act to provide for the protection of Wild animals, birds and plants and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto.
CitationAct No. 53 of 1972
Enacted byParliament of India
Date enacted9 September 1972
Status: In force

The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species. Before 1972, India only had five designated national parks. Among other reforms, the Act established schedules of protected plant and animal species; hunting or harvesting these species was largely outlawed. [1] The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to the whole of India, except the State of Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying degrees of protection. Schedule I and part II of Schedule II provide absolute protection - offences under these are prescribed the highest penalties. Species listed in Schedule III and Schedule IV are also protected, but the penalties are much lower. Schedule V includes the animals which may be hunted. The specified endemic plants in Schedule VI are prohibited from cultivation and planting. The hunting to the Enforcement authorities have the power to compound offences under this Schedule (i.e. they impose fines on the offenders). Up to April 2010 there have been 16 convictions under this act relating to the death of tigers.


The "Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972" was enacted by Parliament of India in 1972.[2]

Definitions under the Act (Section 2)[edit]

  • "animal" includes amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles, and their young ones, and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs.
  • "animal article" means an article made from any captive or wild animal, other than vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal has been used and an article made therefrom.
  • "hunting" includes
(a) capturing, killing, poisoning, snaring, or trapping any wild animal, and every attempt to do so
(b) driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub clause
(c) injuring, destroying or taking any body part of any such animal, or in the case of wild birds or reptiles, disturbing or damaging the eggs or nests of such birds or reptiles.
  • "taxidermy" means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies.
  • "trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive or wild animal (other than vermin) which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural. This includes:
(a) rugs, skins, and specimens of such animals mounted in whole or in part through a process of taxidermy
(b) antler, horn, rhinoceros horn, feather, nail, tooth, musk, eggs, and nests and shells.
  • "uncured trophy" means the whole or any part of any captive animal (other than vermin) which has not undergone a process of taxidermy. This includes a freshly killed wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products.
  • "vermin" means any wild animal specified in Schedule V.
  • "wildlife" includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacean, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which forms part of any habitat

Hunting (Section 9)[edit]

This section describes what constitutes hunting and the intent to hunt. Hunting wild animals is prohibited.

Ownership (Section 40 & 42)[edit]

Regarding ownership issues and trade licences . Ownership will be not transfer to another party he also a regarding issues to trade licence.

Penalties (Section 51)[edit]

Penalties are prescribed in section 51. Enforcement can be performed by agencies such as the Forest Department, the Police, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB), the Customs and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI). Chargesheets can be filed directly by the Forest Department. Other enforcement agencies, often due to the lack of technical expertise, hand over cases to the Forest Department.


The Code has been amended several times.

S. No.Short title of amending legislationNo.Year
1Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 19821982
2Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 19861986
3Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 19911991
4Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 19931993
5Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002[3]2002
6Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 20062006
7Wild Life (Protection ) Amendment Act 20132013

2002 Amendment[edit]

The 2002 Amendment Act which came into force in January, 2003 have made punishment and penalty for offences under the Act more stringent.


For offences relating to wild animals (or their parts and products) included in schedule-I or part II of Schedule- II and those relating to hunting or altering the boundaries of a sanctuary or national park the punishment and penalty have been enhanced, the minimum imprisonment prescribed is three years which may extend to seven years, with a minimum fine of Rs. 10,000/-. For a subsequent offence of this nature, the term of imprisonment shall not be less than three years but may extend to seven years with a minimum fine of Rs. 25,000. Also a new section (51 - A) has been inserted in the Act, making certain conditions applicable while granting bail: 'When any person accused of the commission of any offence relating to Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II or offences relating to hunting inside the boundaries of National Park or Wildlife Sanctuary or altering the boundaries of such parks and sanctuaries, is arrested under the provisions of the Act, then not withstanding anything contained in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, no such person who had been previously convicted of an offence under this Act shall be released on bail unless -[4]

(a) The Public Prosecutor has been given an opportunity of opposing the release on bail; and -[5] (b) Where the Public Prosecutor opposes the application, the Court is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for believing that he is not guilty of such offences and that he is not likely to commit any offence while on bail".

In order to improve the intelligence gathering in wildlife crime, the existing provision for rewarding the informers has been increased from 20% of the fine and composition money respectively to 50% in each case. In addition to this, a reward up to Rs. 10,000/- is also proposed to be given to the informants and others who provide assistance in detection of crime and apprehension of the offender.

At present, persons having ownership certificate in respect of Schedule I and Part II animals, can sell or gift such articles. This has been amended with a view to curb illegal trade, and thus no person can now acquire Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II animals, articles or trophies except by way of inheritance (except live elephants).

Stringent measures have also been proposed to forfeit the properties of hardcore criminals who have already been convicted in the past for heinous wildlife crimes. These provisions are similar to the provisions of 'Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985'. Provisions have also been made empowering officials to evict encroachments from Protected Areas.

Offences not pertaining to hunting of endangered species[edit]

Offences related to trade and commerce in trophies, animals articles etc. derived from certain animals (exception: chapter V A and section 38J) attracts a term of imprisonment up to three years and/or a fine up to Rs. 25,000/-. [6]


Further reading[edit]

  • Law Relating to Forest and Wild Life Protection. Author- B.L.Babel ISBN 9789350281666

External links[edit]

  • "The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972" from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests
  • “Legislations on Environment, Forests, and Wildlife” from the Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests
  • Official website of: Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests
  • Dutta, Ritwick. (2007) Commentaries on Wildlife Law- Cases, Statutes & Notifications . Wildlife Trust of India. A commentary on the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, and includes a compilation of the Supreme Court and High Courts judgements on Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, Indian Forest Act, 1927, Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and other relevant statutes.

Indian legislation

  • Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, benefits and services) Act, 2016
  • Banking Regulation Act, 1949
  • Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act
  • Depositories Act
  • The Electricity Act, 2003
  • Expenditure Tax Act, 1987
  • Finance Act (India)
  • Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003
  • Foreign Contribution Regulation Act
  • Foreign Exchange Management Act
  • Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
  • Government Securities Act, 2006
  • Indian Contract Act, 1872
  • Indian Stamp Act, 1899
  • Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016
  • Insurance Act, 1938
  • Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
  • Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014
  • Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002
  • The Competition Act, 2002
  • The High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonetisation) Act, 1978
  • The Income-tax Act, 1961
  • Transfer of Property Act 1882
  • Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976
State Laws
State Reorganisation
Organisation / Body
  • All India Services Act, 1951
  • Delimitation Act
  • Enemy Property Act, 1968
  • Information Technology Act, 2000
  • Nuclear Liability Act
  • Official Secrets Act (India)
  • Representation of the People Act, 1951
  • Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013
  • Right to Information Act, 2005
  • State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005
  • The Foreigners Act, 1946

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