A Stanford education researcher found that too much homework can negatively affect kids, especially their lives away from school, where family, friends and activities matter.
"Our findings on the effects of homework challenge the traditional assumption that homework is inherently good," wrote Denise Pope, a senior lecturer at the Stanford Graduate School of Education and a co-author of a study published in the Journal of Experimental Education.
The researchers used survey data to examine perceptions about homework, student well-being and behavioral engagement in a sample of 4,317 students from 10 high-performing high schools in upper-middle-class California communities. Along with the survey data, Pope and her colleagues used open-ended answers to explore the students' views on homework.
Median household income exceeded $90,000 in these communities, and 93 percent of the students went on to college, either two-year or four-year.
Students in these schools average about 3.1 hours of homework each night.
"The findings address how current homework practices in privileged, high-performing schools sustain students' advantage in competitive climates yet hinder learning, full engagement and well-being," Pope wrote.
Pope and her colleagues found that too much homework can diminish its effectiveness and even be counterproductive. They cite prior research indicating that homework benefits plateau at about two hours per night, and that 90 minutes to two and a half hours is optimal for high school.
Their study found that too much homework is associated with:
• Greater stress: 56 percent of the students considered homework a primary source of stress, according to the survey data. Forty-three percent viewed tests as a primary stressor, while 33 percent put the pressure to get good grades in that category. Less than 1 percent of the students said homework was not a stressor.
• Reductions in health: In their open-ended answers, many students said their homework load led to sleep deprivation and other health problems. The researchers asked students whether they experienced health issues such as headaches, exhaustion, sleep deprivation, weight loss and stomach problems.
• Less time for friends, family and extracurricular pursuits: Both the survey data and student responses indicate that spending too much time on homework meant that students were "not meeting their developmental needs or cultivating other critical life skills," according to the researchers. Students were more likely to drop activities, not see friends or family, and not pursue hobbies they enjoy.
A balancing act
The results offer empirical evidence that many students struggle to find balance between homework, extracurricular activities and social time, the researchers said. Many students felt forced or obligated to choose homework over developing other talents or skills.
Also, there was no relationship between the time spent on homework and how much the student enjoyed it. The research quoted students as saying they often do homework they see as "pointless" or "mindless" in order to keep their grades up.
"This kind of busy work, by its very nature, discourages learning and instead promotes doing homework simply to get points," said Pope, who is also a co-founder of Challenge Success, a nonprofit organization affiliated with the GSE that conducts research and works with schools and parents to improve students' educational experiences..
Pope said the research calls into question the value of assigning large amounts of homework in high-performing schools. Homework should not be simply assigned as a routine practice, she said.
"Rather, any homework assigned should have a purpose and benefit, and it should be designed to cultivate learning and development," wrote Pope.
In places where students attend high-performing schools, too much homework can reduce their time to foster skills in the area of personal responsibility, the researchers concluded. "Young people are spending more time alone," they wrote, "which means less time for family and fewer opportunities to engage in their communities."
The researchers say that while their open-ended or "self-reporting" methodology to gauge student concerns about homework may have limitations – some might regard it as an opportunity for "typical adolescent complaining" – it was important to learn firsthand what the students believe.
The paper was co-authored by Mollie Galloway from Lewis and Clark College and Jerusha Conner from Villanova University.
Clifton B. Parker is a writer at the Stanford News Service.
Compliance with University Policies/Registration Holds
Registration as a student constitutes a commitment by the student to abide by and accept University policies, rules, requirements, and regulations, even when such policies, rules, requirements, and regulations appear to conflict with ASSU policies or procedures. The policies, rules, requirements, and regulations that students must abide by include (but are not limited to) those concerning registration, academic performance, student conduct, Title IX, health and safety, housing, use of the libraries and computing resources, intellectual property (including completing and signing the SU-18), operation of vehicles on campus, University facilities, and the payment of fees and assessments. Some of these are set forth in this bulletin while others are available in relevant University offices.
Students should take responsibility for informing themselves of applicable University policies, rules, requirements, and regulations. A collection is available on the Stanford University policy web site. Many are also set forth in the Research Policy Handbook and the Graduate Academic Policies and Procedures Handbook (the GAP handbook).
The University reserves the right to withhold registration privileges or to cancel the registration of any student: who is not in compliance with its policies, rules, requirements, or regulations; or for reasons pertaining to academic performance, health and wellness, qualification to be a student, behavioral conduct, or the safety of the University community.
University Communication with Students
Stanford University uses electronic means (such as email, texts, and the Internet) as a primary method of communication and of providing billing, payment, and enrollment services. Signatures or acknowledgments provided by the student electronically to Stanford via Stanford systems and/or @stanford.edu email are valid and legally binding.
Notification/Obligation to Read Email
For many University communications, email to a student's Stanford email account is the official form of notification to the student, and emails sent by University officials to such email addresses will be presumed to have been received and read by the student. Emails and forms delivered through a SUNet account by a student to the University may likewise constitute a formal communication, with the use of this password-protected account constituting the student's electronic signature.
Registration and Study Lists
The preliminary study list deadline is the first day of classes of each quarter during the academic year. As early as possible, but no later than this deadline, students (including those with TGR status) must submit to the Office of the University Registrar via Axess, a study list to enroll officially in classes for the quarter. Students are expected to be enrolled "at status" by the preliminary study list deadline; meaning that students must be enrolled in sufficient units to meet requirements for their status, whether full-time, or on approved special registration status. Students who enroll in more units than their anticipated tuition charge covers will be charged the additional tuition. They may not enroll in courses for zero units unless those courses, like TGR, are defined as zero-unit courses. Zero-unit courses, excluding TGR courses, require concurrent enrollment with unit-bearing courses in all quarters. Undergraduates are subject to academic load limits described in the "Amount of Work" section of this bulletin. Students will be charged a $200 late study list fee for submitting their study lists after the quarterly deadline.
The University reserves the right to withhold registration from, and to cancel the advance registration or registration of, any student having unmet obligations to the University.
Study List Changes
Students may add courses or units to their study lists through the end of the third week of classes. (Individual faculty may choose to close their classes to new enrollments at an earlier date.) Courses or units may be added only if the revised program remains within the normal load limits.
Courses or units may be dropped by students through the end of the third week of classes, without any record of the course remaining on the student's transcript. No drops are permitted after this point. The Final Study List deadline is the last day for tuition reassessment for dropped courses or units.
A student may withdraw from a course after the final study list deadline through the end of the eighth week of each quarter. In this case, a grade notation of 'W' (withdraw) is automatically recorded on the student's transcript for that course. There are no tuition reassessments for withdrawing from individual courses. Students who do not officially withdraw from a class by the end of the eighth week are assigned the appropriate grade or notation by the instructor to reflect the work completed.
Through the end of the eighth week of classes, students may choose the grading option of their choice in courses where an option is offered.
If the instructor allows a student to take an 'I' (incomplete) in the course, the student must make the appropriate arrangements for that with the instructor by the last day of classes.
The deadlines described above follow the same pattern each quarter but, due to the varying lengths of Stanford's quarters, they may not always fall in exactly the week specified. Students should consult the University's academic calendar for the deadline dates each term. Other deadlines may apply in Law, Graduate School of Business, Medicine, and Summer Session.
Students may not enroll in courses for credit for which they received either Advanced Placement (AP) or transfer credit. If students enroll in courses at Stanford for which they received equivalent AP unit credit, the duplicating AP unit credit will be removed.
Some Stanford courses may be repeated for credit; they are specially noted in this bulletin. Most courses may not be repeated for credit. Under the general University grading system, when a course which may not be repeated for credit is retaken by a student, the following special rules apply:
- A student may retake any course on his or her transcript, regardless of grade earned, and have the original grade, for completed courses only, replaced by the notation 'RP' (repeated course). When retaking a course, the student must enroll in it for the same number of units originally taken. When the grade for the second enrollment in the course has been reported, the units and grade points for the second course count in the cumulative grade point average in place of the grade and units for the first enrollment in the course. Because the notation 'RP' can only replace grades for completed courses, the notation 'W' cannot be replaced by the notation 'RP' in any case.
- A student may not retake the same course for a third time unless he or she received a 'NC' (no credit) or 'NP' (not passed) when it was taken and completed the second time. Undergraduate students must file a petition for approval to take the course for a third time with the office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, via the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research (UAR), Sweet Hall. When a student completes a course for the third time, grades and units for both the second and third completions count in the cumulative grade point average. The notation 'W' is not counted toward the three-retake maximum.
Amount of Work
The usual amount of work for undergraduate students is 15 units per quarter; 180 units (225 for dual degree students) are required for graduation. Registration for fewer than 12 units is rarely permitted and may cause the undergraduate to be ineligible for certification as a full-time student. The maximum is 20 units (21 if the program includes a 1-unit activity course). Requests for exception to the maximum may be considered for compelling reasons, the approval of which may include conditions or restrictions. A past superior academic performance is not considered to be sufficient justification for exceeding the maximum. Petitions for programs of fewer than 12 or more than 20 units must be submitted to the office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, via the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research, Sweet Hall, first floor. For additional information regarding satisfactory academic progress, refer to the "Academic Progress" section of this bulletin.
Matriculated graduate students are expected to enroll for at least eight units during the academic year; schools and departments may set a higher minimum. Petitions for programs of fewer than 8 must be signed by the student's department and submitted for consideration to the Office of the University Registrar. Graduate students are normally expected to enroll in no more than 24 units; registration for more than 24 units must be approved by the department. Under certain circumstances, graduate students may register on a part-time basis. See the "Tuition, Fees, and Housing" section of this bulletin.
Enrollment for coterminal students is determined by their tuition group. See Tuition in the "Coterminal Master’s Degrees" section of this bulletin.
Undergraduates and graduate students with disabilities who may seek a reduced course load should contact the Office of Accessible Education.
Unit of Credit
Guidance for faculty and instructors on how to comply with this policy is available on the Registrar's web site.
Every unit for which credit is given is understood to represent approximately three hours of actual work per week for the average student. Thus, in lecture or discussion work, for 1 unit of credit, one hour per week may be allotted to the lecture or discussion and two hours for preparation or subsequent reading and study. Where the time is wholly occupied with studio, field, or laboratory work, or in the classroom work of conversation classes, three full hours per week through one quarter are expected of the student for each unit of credit; but, where such work is supplemented by systematic outside reading or experiment under the direction of the instructor, a reduction may be made in the actual studio, field, laboratory, or classroom time as seems just to the department.
Students planning not to attend class or take an exam because of a religious observance are expected to convey this information to instructors in advance. The Office for Religious Life makes available to faculty, staff, and students a list of significant religious observances at the beginning of each academic year. For further information, contact the Deans for Religious Life at (650) 723-1762 or see the Religious Life web site.
Privacy of Students Records
Notification of Rights Under FERPA
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA) affords students certain rights with respect to their education records. They are:
- The right to inspect and review the student's education records within 45 days of the date the University receives a request for access.
Current and former students who wish to make a FERPA-related request to view records should submit to the Office of the University Registrar an online request that identifies the record(s) the student wishes to inspect:
Students are advised to provide complete information in order to assist the University in following up on the request. Federal law requires that the University provide access to requested extant records within 45 days. A Registrar's Office official will make arrangements for access and notify the student of the time and place where the records may be inspected. If the records requested are not under the control of the Registrar's Office, the Registrar's Office will make arrangements for the relevant office to provide the records within the time frame established under the law.
- The right to request the amendment of the student's education records that the student believes are inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of the student's privacy rights under FERPA.
- A student may ask the University to amend the record that he or she believes is inaccurate or misleading. The student should write the University official responsible for the record (with a copy to the University Registrar), clearly identify the part of the records he or she wants changed, and specify why it should be changed.
- If the University decides not to amend the record as requested by the student, the University will notify the student of the decision and advise the student of his or her right to a hearing regarding the request for amendment.
- Additional information regarding the hearing procedures is provided to the student when notified of the right to a hearing.
- The right to consent to disclosures of personally identifiable information contained in the student's education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosure without consent.
FERPA contains various exceptions to the general rule that the University should not disclose education records without seeking the prior written consent of the student. The following circumstances are representative of those in which education records (and information drawn from education records) may be disclosed without the student's prior written consent:
- Upon request, the University may release Directory Information (see the "Directory Information" section of this bulletin below).
- School officials who have a legitimate educational interest in a student's education record may be permitted to review it. A school official is: a person employed by the University in an administrative, supervisory, academic or research, or support staff position (including law enforcement unit personnel and health staff); a person or company with whom the University has contracted (such as an attorney, auditor, or collection agent); a person serving on the Board of Trustees; or a student or volunteer serving on an official committee (or representing a recognized student group), such as a disciplinary or grievance committee, or assisting another school official in performing his or her tasks. A school official has a legitimate educational interest if the official needs to review an education record in order to fulfill his or her responsibility to Stanford or to the student.
- The University discloses education records without consent to officials of another school, in which a student seeks or intends to enroll, upon request of officials at that other school.
- The University may choose to disclose education records (and information drawn from education records) to either supporting parent(s) or guardian(s) where the student is claimed as a dependent under the Internal Revenue Code.
- The University may inform persons including either parent(s) or guardian(s) when disclosure of the information is necessary to protect the health or safety of the student or other persons.
- For students under the age of 21, the University may notify either parent(s) or guardian(s) of a violation of any law or policy relating to the use of alcohol or controlled substances.
- The University must provide records in response to lawfully issued subpoenas, or as otherwise compelled by legal process.
- The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by the University to comply with the requirements of FERPA.
The name and address of the office that administers FERPA is: Family Policy Compliance Office, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202-4605.
Sharing Information with Parents
Students are encouraged to maintain an ongoing, open dialogue with parents throughout their careers at Stanford about academic progress and personal development. Most student difficulties are resolved at Stanford without involving parents. The University does recognize, however, that there are some exceptional situations where parental involvement may be appropriate to assist a student through a difficult circumstance. Under those circumstances, Stanford may (but is not required to) choose to disclose information to parents if permitted by law.
Under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), Stanford is permitted to disclose information drawn from education records to parents if one or more parent claims the student as a dependent for federal tax purposes. Some laws, especially those relating to medical and mental health care, prohibit the disclosure of information without the student's consent, even where the student is a tax dependent.
The University regards the following items of information as "directory information," that is, information that the University may make available to any person upon specific request (and without student consent):
- Email addresses
- Specific quarters or semesters of registration at Stanford
- Stanford degree(s) awarded and date(s)
- Major(s), minor(s), and field(s)
- University degree honors
- Student theses and dissertations
- Participation in officially recognized sports or activities*
- Weight and height of members of athletic teams*
- Institution attended immediately prior to Stanford
- ID card photographs
For more information, see Stanford's FERPA web page.
Students may prohibit the release of any of the items listed above (except those with an '*') by designating which items should not be released on the Privacy function of Axess. Students may prohibit the release of all directory information listed above after an appointment with the Office of the University Registrar to discuss the ramifications of this action. Student theses and dissertations can be restricted through the publishing options and embargo settings students select during submission.
Students, faculty, and others with questions regarding student records should contact the Office of the University Registrar.
Consent to Use of Photographic Images
Registration as a student and attendance at or participation in classes and other campus and University activities constitutes an agreement by the student to the University's use and distribution (both now and in the future) of the student's image or voice in photographs, video or audio capture, or electronic reproductions of such classes and other campus and University activities.
If any student in a class where such photographing or recording is to take place does not wish to have his or her image or voice so used, the student should raise the matter in advance with the instructor.
Classes that give midterm examinations outside of regular class hours must:
- announce the date and time during the first week of the academic quarter, and
- provide reasonable alternative times to those students who have another class or other University commitment at that time.
According to Honor Code interpretations and applications, different examinations may be given at these alternative times.
End-Quarter Policy Statement
The End-Quarter Period is a time of reduced social and extracurricular activity preceding final examinations. Its purpose is to permit students to concentrate on academic work and to prepare for final examinations.
In Autumn, Winter, and Spring quarters, End-Quarter starts seven full days (to begin at 12:01 a.m.) prior to the first day of final exams. In Spring Quarter, final examinations begin on Friday; no classes are held on Thursday, the day before. In Summer Quarter, this consists of the weekend and the four class days preceding the final examinations, which take place on Friday and Saturday of the eighth week. (See the Time Schedule for dates.)
During the End-Quarter Period, classes are regularly scheduled and assignments made; this regular class time is used by instructors in whatever way seems best suited to the completion and summation of course material. Instructors should neither make extraordinary assignments nor announce additional course meetings in order to "catch up" in course presentations that have fallen behind. They are free, however, and even encouraged to conduct optional review sessions and to suggest other activities that might seem appropriate for students preparing for final examinations.
No graded homework assignments, mandatory quizzes, or examinations should be given during the End-Quarter Period except:
- In classes where graded homework assignments or quizzes are routine parts of the instruction process.
- In classes with laboratories where the final examination will not test the laboratory component. In such a case, the laboratory session(s) during the End-Quarter Period may be used to examine students on that aspect of the course.
Major papers or projects about which the student has had reasonable notice may be called due in the End-Quarter Period.
Take-home final examinations, given in place of the officially scheduled in-class examination, may be distributed in the End-Quarter Period. Although the instructor may ask students to return take-home examinations early in the final examination period, the instructor may not call them due until the end of the regularly scheduled examination time for that course. Such a policy respects the principle that students' final examinations are to be scheduled over a period of several days.
End-quarter examinations may not be held during this period. This policy preserves the instruction time for courses and protects the students' opportunities for extensive review and synthesis of their courses.
During the End-Quarter Period, no musical, dramatic, or athletic events involving student participation may be scheduled, unless approved as exceptions by the Committee on Undergraduate Standards and Policy (C-USP), nor may routine committee meetings be scheduled (such as those of the ASSU, the Senate of the Academic Council, or the committees of the President of the University) when such meetings normally would involve student participation.
Note—Students who believe that there are faculty who are violating End-Quarter policy should contact the Office of the University Registrar.
Examinations are part of the process of education at the same time that they are a means to measure the student's performance in course work. Their structure, content, frequency, and length are to be determined in accordance with the nature of the course and the material presented in it, subject only to the limitations contained herein.
Great flexibility is available regarding the types of examinations that an instructor may choose to employ. Examinations, including final examinations, may be, for example, in-class essay examinations, take-home essay examinations, objective examinations, oral examinations, or appropriate substitutes such as papers or projects. Instructors may use any type of examination, paper, or project, or any combination thereof, guided only by the appropriateness of the types of examinations, papers, or projects for the material upon which the student is being examined.
When the final examination is an in-class examination, the following regulations apply:
- A three-hour period is reserved during examination week for the final examination in each course of more than 2 units. This examination period must be available for students, but not necessarily in its entirety, if an in-class examination is given. In courses with extraordinary meeting times, such that ambiguity might exist as regards the period reserved for the final examination, the schedule should be clarified and students informed no later than the end of the second week of the quarter.
- Examinations in 1- or 2-unit courses must be completed by the end of the last class meeting before the End-Quarter Period, except in Summer Quarter when examinations must be completed during the last regularly scheduled class session.
When the final examination or its appropriate substitute is not an in-class examination (for example, when an instructor chooses to employ a take-home examination, paper, or project in lieu of an in-class examination), the following regulations apply:
- The schedule and format of the final examination or its appropriate substitute are made known not later than the end of the second week of the quarter and, if changed subsequently, may be only an option of the plan originally announced by the instructor.
- Although the instructor may ask students to return take-home examinations early in the final examination period, the instructor may not call them due until the end of the regularly scheduled examination time for that course.
In submitting official Study Lists, students commit to all course requirements, including the examination procedures chosen and announced by the course instructor. In choosing courses, students should take cognizance of the official schedule of final examinations announced on the Registrar's web site. Students anticipating conflicts in final examination schedules should seek to resolve these with the instructors involved before the Preliminary Study List deadline at the beginning of the quarter. If accommodation cannot be made at that time, the student should revise his or her Study List before the Final Study List deadline at the end of the third week of the quarter in order to be able to meet the required final examination.
If unforeseen circumstances prevent the student from sitting for the regularly scheduled examination, instructors should make alternative arrangements on an individual basis. Such unforeseen circumstances include illness, personal emergency, or the student's required participation in special events (for example, athletic championships) approved as exceptions by the Committee on Undergraduate Standards and Policy (C-USP). Inquiries regarding these circumstances may be directed to the office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, via the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research (UAR), Sweet Hall.
Statement Concerning Early Examinations
Students are reminded that taking final examinations earlier than the scheduled time is a privilege, not a right. They should request this privilege only in the event of extraordinary circumstances.
Since the final examination schedule for each quarter is published annually on the Registrar's web site at the time of course selection and enrollment, students are expected to make their academic plans in light of known personal circumstances that may make certain examination times difficult for them.
In general, faculty members are discouraged from giving final examinations earlier than the published and announced times. If faculty nevertheless decide to administer early examinations, either the questions should be completely different from those on the regularly scheduled examination or the early examination should be administered in a highly controlled setting. An example of such a setting would be a campus seminar room where the examination questions would be collected along with students' work and students would be reminded of their Honor Code obligations not to share information about the examination contents. Giving students easy opportunities to abuse the integrity of an examination is unfair to honest students and inconsistent with the spirit of the Honor Code.
Academic fields differ in the degree to which early examination requests present dilemmas for faculty. If, for example, an examination format consists of a small number of essay questions, where students would be greatly advantaged by knowing the question topics, faculty should be especially reluctant to allow early examinations unless they are willing to offer totally different examinations or a different kind of academic task, for example, a final paper in lieu of an examination.
General University Grading Systems
The general University grading system is applicable to all of Stanford University except the Graduate School of Business, the School of Law, and M.D. students in the School of Medicine. Note that the GPA (grade point average) and rank in class are not computed under the general University grading system. Stanford does use an internal-only GPA which is based on units completed up to the time of conferral of the first bachelor's degree. This information is used for internal purposes only (including academic progress) and is not displayed on the official transcript which is sent outside the University. Most courses are graded according to the general University grading system. However, courses offered through Law, Business, and Medicine are graded according to those schools' grading systems, even in cases where students in other programs are enrolled in their classes. Note also that, as to graduate students, there may be departmental requirements as to grades that must be maintained for purposes of minimum academic progress.
Definition and Explanation of Grading Systems
All grades/notations for courses taken in 1995-96 or later are to be visible on student transcripts. Effective Summer Quarter 2008-09, the notation * was changed to GNR (Grade Not Reported).
|D (+,-)||Minimal pass|
|NC||No Credit (unsatisfactory performance, 'D+' or below equivalent, in a class taken on a satisfactory/no credit basis)|
|CR||Credit (student-elected satisfactory; A, B, or C equivalent)|
|S||No-option Satisfactory; A, B, or C equivalent|
|L||Pass, letter grade to be reported|
|N (-)||Continuing course|
|*||No grade reported (effective through Spring 2008-09).|
|GNR||Grade not reported (effective beginning Autumn Quarter 2009-10).|
|NC||The notation 'NC' represents unsatisfactory performance in courses taken on a satisfactory/no credit basis. Performance is equivalent to letter grade 'D+' or below.|
|NP||The notation 'NP' is used by instructors in courses taken for a letter grade that are not passed.|
|CR||In a course for which some students receive letter grades, the 'CR' represents performance that is satisfactory or better when the student has elected the 'CR' grading option.|
|S||For an activity course or a course in which the instructor elects to grade students only on a satisfactory/no credit basis, the 'S' represents performance that is satisfactory or better. For such a course, no letter grades may be assigned for satisfactorily completed work. It should be noted that the Registrar is unable to record course grades submitted when the instructor has not observed the required distinction between 'S' and 'CR.' The 'satisfactory' options are intended to relieve the pressure on students for achievement in grades. The 'satisfactory' options in no way imply fewer or different course work requirements than those required of students who elect evaluation with a letter grade. A department may limit the number of 'satisfactory' courses to count for a major program. No more than 36 units of Stanford course work (including activity courses) in which a 'CR' or 'S' was awarded can be applied toward the 180 (225 if dual degrees are being pursued) units required for a bachelor's degree. Transfer students are limited to 27 'CR' or 'S' units applied to the 180/225 minimum.|
|L||The 'L' is a temporary notation that represents creditable completion of a course for which the student will receive a permanent letter grade before the start of the next quarter. The 'L' is given when the instructor needs additional time to determine the specific grade to be recorded, but it is not appropriate if additional work is expected to be submitted by the student. A student receives unit credit for work graded 'L.'|
|N||The 'N' indicates satisfactory progress in a course that has not yet reached completion. Continuation courses need not continue at the same number of units, but the grade for all quarters of such a course must be the same.|
|N-||The 'N-' grade indicates unsatisfactory progress in a continuing course. The first 'N-' grade constitutes a warning. The adviser, department chair, and student should discuss the deficiencies and agree on the steps necessary to correct them. A second consecutive 'N-' will normally cause the department to deny the student further registration until a written plan for the completion of the degree requirements has been submitted by the student and accepted by the department. Subsequent 'N-' grades are grounds for dismissal from the program.|
|I||The 'I' is restricted to cases in which the student has satisfactorily completed a substantial part of the course work. No credit is given until the course is completed and a passing grade received. When a final grade is received, all reference to the initial 'I' is removed. 'I' grades must be changed to a permanent notation or grade within a maximum of one year. If an incomplete grade is not cleared at the end of one year, it is changed automatically by the Office of the University Registrar to an 'NP' (not passed) or 'NC' (no credit) as appropriate for the grading method of the course. Students must request an incomplete grade by the last class meeting. Faculty may determine whether to grant the request or not. Faculty are free to determine the conditions under which the incomplete is made up, including setting a deadline of less than one year (but not more than one year). A leave of absence does not stop the clock on the time limit for resolving incompletes. Graduate students with extenuating circumstances, that may warrant an exception to academic policy, should discuss the need for an extension to the time limit with their advisor and the course instructor. Students may request an extension of the deadline for resolving an incomplete by submitting the Petition to Change Course Enrollment (Graduate Students).|
|RP||The notation 'RP' (meaning Repeated Course) replaces the original grade recorded for a course when a student retakes a course. (See the "Repeated Courses" section of this bulletin.)|
|W||The notation 'W' (meaning Withdraw) is recorded when a student withdraws from a course.|
|*||The '*' symbol appears when no grade has been reported to the Registrar for courses taken prior to 2001-02. The '*' symbol remains on the transcript until a grade has been reported (effective through Spring 2008-09).|
|GNR||The notation 'GNR' appears when no grade has been reported to the Registrar. The 'GNR' notation remains on the transcript until a grade has been reported. (Effective beginning Autumn Quarter 2009-10.)|
Reporting of Grades
All grades should be reported within 96 hours after the time and day reserved for the final examination, and in no case later than noon of the fourth day (including weekends) after the last day of the final examination period.
In the case of degree candidates in Spring Quarter, final grades should be reported by noon of the day following the end of the final examination period.
Revision of End-Quarter Grades
When duly filed with the Office of the University Registrar, end-quarter grades are final and not subject to change by reason of a revision of judgment on the instructor's part; nor are grades to be revised on the basis of a second trial (for example, a new examination or additional work undertaken or completed after the end of the quarter). Changes may be made at any time to correct an actual error in computation or transcription, or where some part of the student's work has been unintentionally overlooked; that is, if the new grade is the one that would have been entered on the original report had there been no mistake in computing and had all the pertinent data been before the instructor, the change is a proper one.
If a student questions an end-quarter grade based on the grading of part of a specific piece of work (for example, part of a test) on the basis of one of the allowable factors mentioned in the preceding paragraph (for example, an error in computation or transcription, or work unintentionally overlooked, but not matters of judgment as mentioned below), the instructor may review the entire piece of work in question (for example, the entire test) for the purpose of determining whether the end-quarter grade was a proper one. In general, changing an end-quarter grade is permitted on the basis of the allowable factors already mentioned whether an error is discovered by the student or the instructor; however, changing a grade is not permitted by reason of revision of judgment on the part of the instructor.
In the event that a student disputes an end-quarter grade, the established grievance procedure should be followed (see the "Student Academic Grievance Procedure" section of this bulletin).
Freezing of Grades Upon Graduation
All grades, with the exception of 'I' (Incomplete), 'GNR' (Grade Not Reported), 'L' (Pass, grade to follow), and 'N' (Continuation) grades, are frozen at the time of graduation. Grades of Incomplete become frozen 12 months after the quarter in which they were awarded, either as 'NP' (Not Passed) if the course work has not been successfully completed, or another grade if it has. Grades of 'GNR', 'L', or 'N' also have one year to be updated after which they are frozen as they stand. The Office of the University Registrar evaluates prior to graduation whether the GPA on a transcript bearing grades of Incomplete would meet University requirements for graduation even if all 'I' grades were replaced by 'NP'.
Graduate School of Business Grades
All courses offered by the Graduate School of Business are graded according to the following five-level scheme:
|H||Honors. Work that is of truly superior quality.|
|HP||High Pass. A passing performance, and one that falls approximately in the upper quarter of passing grades.|
|P||Pass. A passing performance that falls in the center of the distribution of all passing grades.|
|LP||Low Pass. A passing performance that falls approximately in the lower quarter of passing grades.|
|U||Unsatisfactory. A failing performance. Work that does not satisfy the basic requirements of the course and is deficient in significant ways.|
|GNR||The notation 'GNR' appears when no grade has been reported to the Registrar. The 'GNR' notation remains on the transcript until a grade has been reported (effective Autumn Quarter 2009-10).|
GSB courses may receive grades of "+" (Pass) for courses taken on a Pass-Fail basis, with "U" denoting a failing grade, "I" for Incomplete, and "N" for a continuing grade. The grade of N is recorded in a course that spans more than a single quarter, where the grade in an earlier quarter will be determined only later, after the entire course sequence is complete..
Prior to 2009-10, an asterisk (*) notation was placed when no grade was reported.
For more information, see the GSB Grades web site.
Stanford Law School Grades
Effective Autumn Quarter 2009-10, units earned in the Stanford Law School are quarter units. Units earned in the Stanford Law School prior to 2009-10 were semester units. The following grading system became effective in Autumn Semester 2008-09. J.D. students who graduated in 2009 remained on the prior grading system but all other students shifted to the new grading system. For more information, see the Stanford Law School Handbook.
|H||Honors (exceptional work, significantly superior to the average performance at the school)|
|P||Pass (representing successful mastery of the course material)|
|R||Restricted credit (representing work that is unsatisfactory)|
|F||Fail (representing work that does not show minimally adequate mastery of the material)|
|MP||Mandatory pass (representing P or better work)|
|*||No grade reported|
|GNR||Grade not reported (effective Autumn Quarter 2009-10).|
The grading systems employed at the Stanford Law School September 2001 through Spring 2009 were as follows. Under the numerical system (with letter equivalents), the range of satisfactory grades ran from 4.3 to 2.5 as outlined in the following distribution. Below the grade of 2.5 was one level of restricted credit (2.2) and one level of failure (2.1). The number grades with letter equivalents were as follows:
On this old system, students could elect to take a limited number of courses on a credit/restricted credit/no credit system (K/RK/NK). 'K' was awarded for work that was comparable to numerical grades 4.3 to 2.5, 'RK' for Restricted Credit-level work (2.2), and 'NK' for Failure-level work (2.1). A limited number of courses were offered on a mandatory credit (KM)/no credit (NK) basis.
'N' is a temporary notation used in a continuing course; it is replaced with a final grade upon completion of the course series.
School of Medicine Grades
In general, the following grades are used in reporting on the performance of students in the M.D. program:
|Pass (+)||Indicates that the student has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department or teaching group responsible for the course that the student has mastered the material taught in the course.|
|Fail (-)||Indicates that the student has not demonstrated to the satisfaction of the department or teaching group responsible for the course that the student has mastered the material taught in the course.|
|Incomplete (I)||Indicates that extenuating medical or personal circumstances have prevented the student from completing the course requirements. This grade is given when requested by the student with the prior approval of an Advising Dean in the School of Medicine.|
|Continuing (N)||Indicates that the course has not concluded and the student is continuing the course.|
|Exempt (Ex)||Indicates a course that is exempted by examination. No units are awarded.|
|GNR||The notation 'GNR' appears when no grade has been reported to the Registrar. The 'GNR' notation remains on the transcript until a grade has been reported (effective Autumn Quarter 2009-10).|
In general, a 'Fail' grade can be cleared by repeating and passing the particular course or by other arrangement prescribed by the department or teaching group. An 'Incomplete' grade can be made up in a manner specified by the department or teaching group within a reasonable time; if the deficiency is not made up within the specified time, the 'Incomplete' grade becomes a 'Fail' grade. The opportunity to clear a 'Fail' grade or an 'Incomplete' grade cannot be extended to individuals who are not registered or eligible to register as students in the M.D. program. For more specific information, see the Assessment of Student Academic Performance web site.
Transcripts of Stanford records are issued by the Office of the University Registrar upon the student's request when submitted in writing or via the online Axess system. There is no charge for official transcripts. The courses taken in one quarter do not appear on any student's transcript until after the final study list deadline. The University reserves the right to withhold transcripts or records of students with unmet obligations to the University.
Certification of Enrollment or Degrees
The Office of the University Registrar can provide written confirmation of registration, enrollment, or degree status upon request by the student. The printed certification can be used whenever enrollment or degree verification is required for car insurance, loan deferments, medical coverage, scholarship purposes, and so on. Using Axess, students are able to print an official certification at no charge. Certification of full- or part-time enrollment cannot be provided until after the study list is filed for the quarter in question.
Degrees are conferred quarterly, but diplomas are issued in accordance to the distribution dates listed on the Registrar's Office web site. After conferral, the degree awarded to a student can be verified by contacting the Office of the University Registrar for an official transcript, or official degree certification form. Requests for transcripts or degree certifications must be made by the student in writing or through Axess.
Stanford University has authorized the National Student Clearinghouse (NSC) to act as its agent for purposes of third party enrollment and degree verification. The NSC will be able to verify degrees and enrollment for only those students who have not placed a privacy block on their academic record. The student's name when enrolled, Social Security Number or Student ID, and date of birth will be required for identification purposes and enrollment or degree verification. All third parties should contact the National Student Clearinghouse by phone or visit their web site for current enrollment and degree verification information, instructions, and fees.
As a general proposition, full-time enrollment for undergraduates is considered to be enrollment in a minimum of 12 units of course work per quarter at Stanford. Work necessary to complete units from previous quarters does not count toward the 12 units necessary for full-time status in the current quarter. Enrollment in 8 to 11 units is considered half-time enrollment. Enrollment in 1 to 7 units is considered less-than-half-time, or part-time enrollment. During Summer Quarter, all graduate students who hold appointments as research or teaching assistants are considered to be enrolled on at least a half-time basis.
For students with disabilities taking a reduced course load, contact the Office of Accessible Education for additional information.
All undergraduates validly registered at Stanford are considered to be in good standing for the purposes of enrollment certification.
Stanford uses the following definitions (in units) to certify the enrollment status of graduate and professional students each quarter:
|Status||Graduate||Business (M.B.A./Sloan)||Law||Medicine (M.D.)|
|Full time:||8 or more||11 or more||9 or more||9 or more|
|Half time:||6 or 7||6-10||6-8||6-8|
|Part time:||5 or fewer||5 or fewer||5 or fewer||5 or fewer|
TGR students enrolled in a course numbered 801 or 802 are certified as full time. Graduate students on an approved Graduation Quarter status are certified as full time.
As a general proposition, only information classified by the University as directory information (see the "Directory Information" section of this bulletin) can be confirmed to inquirers other than the student.
H-1B Degree Certification
As the H-1B application deadline is April 1 and Winter Quarter degree conferral does not occur until after this date (or just before), the Office of the University Registrar provides an H-1B Degree Certification Letter for eligible students graduating Winter Quarter who are applying for the H-1B visa and have completed all school/department and University degree requirements.
Students conferring degrees in all terms except Winter Quarter should request an official transcript in their student Axess account after the degree conferral date of their graduation term. The official transcript indicates the results of all work completed and degrees awarded. Students can also request an official degree certification via Axess, or by completing a Degree Certification Request form. See Certifications and Verifications for details on requesting degree verification.
An Enrollment Verification is included with the H-1B Degree Certification Letter. The Enrollment Certification states a student’s enrollment history, current program of study, major, expected degree, and expected degree conferral date. This document bears the University seal and signature of the University Registrar. For more information see the Office of the University Registrar H-1B Certification Letter web site.
Bechtel International Center organizes H-1B workshops which students are encouraged to attend if they have any questions regarding H-1B issues.
Stanford will consider granting a posthumous degree in instances in which a student was in good standing and had completed at least 90% of all graduation requirements at the time of death. Requests must be approved by the chair of the major department or the dean of a professional school and the University Registrar. Requests should be addressed to the University Registrar and generally should take place within 12 months of the student's death.
Undergraduates must maintain a minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA and a quantitative unit requirement for satisfactory academic progress. In addition, a minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA is required for conferral of a baccalaureate degree.
Undergraduates normally are expected to plan their academic programs so that they can complete 180 units in four years (twelve quarters), including the requirements for a major and the General Education (Ways/GERs), Writing and Rhetoric, and Language Requirements. Satisfactory academic progress is, on average, 45 units per academic year for four years leading to at least 180 units, a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0, and a baccalaureate degree.
While undergraduates are expected to register for a minimum of 12 units, they are required to earn at least 9 units each quarter (by the end of the final exam period) and at least 36 units in their most recent three quarters of Stanford enrollment (by the end of the third final exam period). In addition, students are expected to maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0. Transfer work completed at other institutions is not considered in this calculation.
A student earning fewer than 9 units per quarter or fewer than 36 units in three quarters, or earning less than a 2.0 cumulative grade point average, is placed on probation. (For students with disabilities taking a reduced course load, contact the Office of Accessible Education for additional information.) Additionally, a student may be placed directly on provisional registration or suspension (both further defined in this section) without first being placed on probation if the student had a prior probation status. Students on probation or provisional registration status are required to earn a minimum of 12 units of new course work per quarter (by the end of the final quarter examination period for each quarter) in each quarter for three quarters of consecutive enrollment (excluding Summer), and achieve and maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0 to attain a satisfactory academic progress status. The C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress may stipulate otherwise by acting upon a request for fewer units (i.e. reduced course load).
A Stanford Summer Session quarter may count (upon request) toward the three quarter consecutive enrollment requirement if 11 or more units are earned.
Full-time enrollment is considered to be enrollment in a minimum of 12 units of course work per quarter at Stanford. Under extenuating circumstances, students may submit a request to the C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress to take fewer units. As a general proposition, work necessary to complete units from previous quarters does not count toward the 12 units necessary for full-time enrollment in the current quarter. All students registering for fewer than 12 units should consider the effects of that registration on their degree progress, visas, residency requirements, varsity athlete status, and their eligibility for financial aid and awards as well as eligibility for or deferment of student loans.
All undergraduates validly registered at Stanford are considered to be in good standing for the purposes of enrollment certification and athletic participation.
Units are granted for courses completed with grades 'A,' 'B,' 'C,' 'D,' 'Satisfactory' ('CR' or 'S'), and 'L.' Courses graded 'N' are counted provisionally as units earned, provided the student enrolls in the continuing segment of that course the following quarter. When the course is completed satisfactorily, the student receives the units for which he or she enrolled. No units are granted for a course in which the student receives an 'I' or a 'GNR' ('GNR' replaced the '*' effective Autumn Quarter 2009-10) until the course is completed satisfactorily and the final grade reported. No units are granted for a course in which the student receives a 'W'. (See the "Grading Systems" section of this bulletin).
Students who receive all 'W's as the result of a Leave of Absence (either voluntary or involuntary) are subject to Academic Progress policies.
The C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress, in its discretion, is empowered to place conditions on students with an academic progress status (e.g., probation, provisional registration, etc.) with regard to enrollment and participation in programs and activities. In addition, students on probation require approval in advance from Undergraduate Advising and Research, Residential Education, and the Overseas Studies Program office or Stanford in Washington Program office or Stanford in New York or Stanford at Sea in order to participate in Stanford's Overseas Studies Program or Stanford in Washington Program or Stanford in New York or Stanford at Sea; while students on other statuses (e.g., provisional registration, etc.) are ineligible to participate in these programs.
Degree Progress standards for coterminal students are described in the coterminal bachelor's and master's degrees section of the Bulletin.
Students receiving federal student aid funds must maintain satisfactory academic progress standards that may be stricter than those outlined here. See the Financial Aid Office web site for details.
A student who fails to earn at least 36 units of work (by the end of the third final exam period) in his or her most recent three quarters of enrollment at the University (excluding Summer), or who fails to earn by the end of the final examination period at least 9 quarter units of work in his or her most recent quarter of enrollment at the University (excluding Summer), or who has a cumulative grade point average of less than 2.0, may be placed on probation.
A student shall be removed from probation if, in each of three subsequent quarters of consecutive enrollment at the University (excluding Summer), he or she earns a minimum of 12 units of new course work by the end of the final examination period and achieves and maintains a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0. A student may also be removed from probation at the discretion of the C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress or its designees as a result of a review of individual records.
A student who, while on probation, fails in any quarter of registration (excluding Summer) to earn a minimum of 12 units of new course work by the end of the final examination period or fails to achieve and maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0, may be placed on provisional registration status. In addition, and on occasion, a student may also be placed directly on provisional registration without first being placed on probation if the student has had a prior probation status.
A student shall be removed from provisional registration if, in each of three subsequent quarters of enrollment at the University (excluding summer), he or she earns a minimum of 12 units of new course work by the end of the final examination period and achieves and maintains a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0. A student may also be removed from provisional registration at the discretion of the C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress or its designees as a result of a review of individual records.
A student who, while on provisional registration, fails in any quarter of registration (excluding Summer) to earn a minimum of 12 units of new course work by the end of the final examination period or fails to achieve and maintain a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.0, may be suspended. In addition, and on occasion, a student may also be suspended directly from probation; or may be suspended without first being placed on probation or provisional registration if the student has had a prior probation status.
While students suspended for the first time are suspended for one year, students suspended a subsequent time may be suspended for up to three years.
Students suspended for one year are not eligible to enroll for four quarters (including Summer Quarter) following the quarter in which the suspension was issued. Students suspended for up to three years are not eligible to enroll for up to twelve quarters (including Summer Quarter) following the quarter in which the suspension was issued.
As well, until re-enrollment, students who are suspended are ineligible for the privileges associated with registration, privileges that include living in University housing, participating in voluntary student organizations, and involvement in any activity for which enrollment is a requirement.
The C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress or its designees, in its discretion, may impose conditions of the suspension, and/or to a return from the suspension.
Reconsideration of Academic Suspension
Students who receive an academic suspension and believe they have information that presents relevant and compelling material previously unknown to the subcommittee or its designees, such that reconsideration for immediate continuation of their studies without a break in enrollment is suitable, should meet with an adviser from the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research (UAR) in VPUE to discuss their circumstances. Students with such relevant circumstances may submit a Request for Reconsideration of Academic Suspension. Granting such requests is at the discretion of the subcommittee or its designees, and may be based on factors or considerations regarded as relevant including the demonstrated or perceived likelihood for immediate academic success. Requests for reconsideration submitted after the deadline are not accepted. A student may also grieve an academic suspension under the Student Academic Grievance Procedure.
Students are expected to complete their academic suspension in full. An academic suspension may not be substituted, in part or in whole, by a Leave of Absence.
Returning from Suspension
Students are required to submit a properly endorsed application for reinstatement to request reenrollment after the suspension period has been completed. Instructions including deadlines for requesting to return should be obtained from the Office of the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, via the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research (UAR), Sweet Hall. The C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress, or those designated by the subcommittee, acts upon all requests concerning academic progress and its statuses, including requests to return after academic suspension. The subcommittee or its designees may determine whether the application for reinstatement to return will be approved or not, and/or the conditions a student must meet in order to return. Request to return decisions are at the discretion of the University and may be based on activities while away from campus, the perceived potential for successful completion of the program, as well as any other factors or considerations regarded as relevant to the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education or the subcommittee or its designees.
Students who return from an academic suspension are given the academic progress status "provisional registration", and must adhere to and comply with the policies above and elsewhere related to that status upon their return. Questions concerning academic progress or requests to return should be directed to the office of Undergraduate Advising and Research (UAR), Sweet Hall.
Students returning from suspension should also contact appropriate campus offices, such as Housing and Financial Aid, regarding those deadlines and procedures.
Notification (Academic Progress)
Written notification that a student is on probation, provisional registration, or suspension is sent to the student, to the student's academic adviser(s), and to other relevant university offices and individuals as soon as possible after the close of the quarter. Students also receive written notification of the outcome of their Request for Reconsideration of Academic Suspension or request to return after suspension. Current student status, such as whether a student is enrolled or not, is considered Directory Information for FERPA purposes at Stanford, and Stanford may provide either parent(s) or guardian(s) written notification of a change in student status. Provided that a student consents, or the student is a dependent for income tax purposes, Stanford may also provide either parent(s) or guardian(s) written notification that the student is on probation, provisional registration, suspension, or leave of absence (either voluntary or involuntary). Other FERPA exceptions may also apply.
Student Academic Grievance Procedure
The following policy is subject to periodic review and modification.
- Any Stanford undergraduate or graduate student who believes that he or she has been subjected to an improper decision on an academic matter is entitled to file a grievance to obtain an independent review of the allegedly improper decision, followed by corrective action if appropriate. A grievance is a complaint in writing made to an administrative officer of the University concerning an academic decision, made by a person or group of persons acting in an official University capacity, that directly and adversely affects the student as an individual in his or her academic capacity.
- This grievance procedure applies only in those cases involving a perceived academic impropriety arising from a decision taken by: (1) an individual instructor or researcher; (2) a school, department, or program; (3) a committee charged to administer academic policies of a particular school, department, or program; or (4) the University Registrar, the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, the C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress, or a Senate committee or subcommittee charged to administer academic policies of the Senate of the Academic Council. This procedure does not apply to: (1) complaints expressing dissatisfaction with a University policy of general application challenged on the grounds that the policy is unfair or inadvisable; (2) individual school, department, or program academic policies, as long as those policies are not inconsistent with general University policy; (3) matters proceeding or addressed through the Office of Community Standards; or (4) involuntary leave decisions.
- Individuals should be aware that the University Ombuds Office is available to all Stanford students, faculty, and staff to discuss and advise on any matter of University concern and frequently helps expedite resolution of such matters. Although it has no decision-making authority, the University Ombuds Office has wide powers of inquiry, including into student complaints against instructors.
- Grievance and Appeal Procedures
- Informal Attempts at Resolution: the student first should discuss the matter, orally or in writing, with the individual(s) most directly responsible. If no resolution results, the student should then consult with the individual at the next administrative level, for example, the chair or director of the relevant department or program, or, for those cases in which there is none, with the school dean. At this stage, the department chair or program director, if any, may inform the dean that the consultation is taking place and may solicit his or her advice on how to ensure that adequate steps are taken to achieve a fair result. Efforts should be made to resolve the issues at an informal level without the complaint escalating to the status of a formal grievance.
- The Filing of the Grievance:
- If informal means of resolution prove unsatisfactory, the student should set forth in writing a statement of the decision that constitutes the subject matter of the dispute, the grounds on which it is being challenged, and the reasons why the grievant believes that the decision was improperly taken. The statement should also include a description of the remedy sought and the informal efforts taken to date to resolve the matter. It is at this point that the complaint becomes a formal grievance. The written grievance should specifically address the matters set forth in the Standards for Review, as stated in Section 4 below. The grievance should include an allegation of any adverse effects on the grievant, known to the grievant at the time of filing.
- The grievance document should be submitted to the dean of the school in which the grievance arose; for a grievance concerning a decision of the University Registrar, the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, or of a Senate committee or subcommittee, the procedures set forth herein for grievances and appeals shall be modified as stated in Section 3 below. A grievance must be filed in a timely fashion, that is, no later than 30 days after the end of the academic quarter in which the adverse decision occurred or should reasonably have been discovered. Except in extraordinary circumstances, delay in filing a grievance will constitute grounds for rejection of the grievance.
- The Response to the Grievance:
- The relevant dean will consider the grievance. The dean may attempt to resolve the matter informally or make whatever disposition of the grievance that he or she deems appropriate. The dean may, in appropriate cases, remand the grievance to a lower administrative level (including to the level at which the grievance arose) for further consideration.
- The dean may also refer the grievance, or any issue therein, to any person (the "grievance officer") who will consider the matter and report to the dean as the latter directs. The dean will inform the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) in writing of any referral of the matter and will specify the matters referred, the directions to the person or persons to whom the referral is made (including the time frame within which the person is to report back to the dean), and the name of that person.
- In undertaking the review, the dean or the grievance officer may request a response to the issues raised in the grievance from any individuals believed to have information considered relevant, including faculty, staff, and students.
- Should attempts to resolve the matter informally not be successful, the dean will decide the grievance, and will notify the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) in writing of the disposition made of the grievance and the grounds for the disposition at the earliest practicable date after his or her receipt of the grievance.
- Normally, no more than 60 days should elapse between the filing of a grievance and the disposition by the dean. If, because of absence of key persons from the campus or other circumstances or exigencies (including those due to breaks in the academic calendar), the dean decides that disposition on that schedule is not possible, he or she shall inform the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) of that in writing, giving the grounds therefore and an estimate of when a disposition can be expected. During summers and the winter closure, this time frame will nearly always be extended.
- The Filing of an Appeal:
- If the grievant is dissatisfied with the disposition of the grievance at the decanal level, either on substantive or on procedural grounds, he or she may appeal in writing to the Provost.
- The appeal must specify the particular substantive or procedural bases of the appeal (that is, the appeal must be made on grounds other than general dissatisfaction with the disposition) and must be directed only to issues raised in the grievance as filed or to procedural errors in the grievance process itself, and not to new issues. The appeal must contain the following:
- A copy of the original grievance and any other documents submitted by the grievant in connection therewith.
- A copy of the determination made by the dean on that
- A statement of why the reasons for the determination of the dean are not satisfactory to the grievant. This statement should specifically address the matters set forth in the Standards for Review in Section 4 below.
- The grievant will file his or her appeal at the earliest practicable date after the grievant's receipt of the determination by the dean. Normally, no more than 30 days should elapse between the transmittal of the dean's decision on the grievance and the filing of the appeal. Except in extraordinary circumstances, delay in filing an appeal will constitute grounds for rejection of the appeal.
- The Response to the Appeal:
- The Provost may attempt to resolve the matter informally, or refer the appeal, or any issue thereof, to any person (the "grievance appeal officer") who shall consider the matter and report to the Provost as the latter directs. The Provost may also, in appropriate cases, remand the matter to a lower administrative level (including to the level at which the grievance arose) for further consideration.
- The Provost will inform the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) in writing of any referral of the matter and will specify the matters referred, the directions to the person to whom the referral is made (including the time frame within which the person is to report back to the Provost), and the name of that person.
- Should attempts be made to resolve the matter informally not be successful, the Provost will decide the appeal, and will notify the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) in writing of the disposition made of the grievance and the grounds for the disposition at the earliest practicable date after his or her receipt of the appeal. The decision of the Provost shall be final, unless the grievant requests a further appeal to the President pursuant to subsection 2f below, and the President agrees to entertain this further appeal.
- Normally no more than 45 days should elapse between the filing of the appeal and the disposition by the Provost. If, because of absence of key persons from the campus or other circumstances or exigencies (including those due to breaks in the academic calendar), the Provost judges that disposition on that schedule is not possible, he or she will inform the grievant (and the party against whose decision the grievance has been filed) of the fact in writing, giving the grounds therefore and an estimate of when a disposition can be expected. During summers and the winter closure, this time frame will nearly always be extended.
- The Request to the President: if the student is dissatisfied with the disposition of the appeal by the Provost, he or she may write to the President of the University giving reasons why he or she believes the grievance result to be wrong (following the general format set forth in subsection 2d.2 above). No more than 30 days should elapse between the transmittal of the Provost's disposition and the written statement to the President urging further appeal. In any case, the President may agree or decline to entertain this further appeal. If the President declines to entertain the further appeal, the decision of the Provost is final. If the President decides to entertain the further appeal, he or she will follow the general procedures set forth in Section 2e above, and the decision of the President will be final.
- Grievances Concerning Decisions of the University Registrar, the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, or of a Senate Committee or Subcommittee
- For a grievance concerning a decision of the University Registrar, the Vice Provost for Undergraduate Education, the C-USP Subcommittee on Academic Progress, or of a Senate committee or subcommittee, the grievant will file his or her grievance with the Provost, rather than with the dean, and the Provost will handle that grievance in accordance with the procedures set forth in Section 2c above.
- There is no appeal of the Provost's disposition of that grievance, except as may be available under Section 2f above.
- Standards for Review and Procedural Matters
- The review of grievances or appeals will usually be limited to the following considerations:
- Were the proper facts and criteria brought to bear on the decision? Were improper or extraneous facts or criteria brought to bear that substantially affected the decision to the detriment of the grievant?
- Were there any procedural irregularities that substantially affected the outcome of the matter to the detriment of the grievant?
- Given the proper facts, criteria, and procedures, was the decision one which a person in the position of the decision maker might reasonably have made?
- The time frames set forth herein are guidelines. They may be extended by the relevant administrative officer in his or her discretion for good cause.
- Questions concerning the filing and appeal of grievances should be directed to the Office of the Provost.
- The review of grievances or appeals will usually be limited to the following considerations:
Stanford University ID Number
The Stanford University ID Number is assigned to each student's academic record for unique identification. It is printed on the Stanford University ID card and on documents distributed by the Office of the University Registrar and other administrative offices. It is a violation of University policy to use another's Stanford University ID Number to misrepresent yourself in any way; such use can result in loss of student privileges or other disciplinary action.
The SUNet ID provides access to the Stanford University Network (SUNet) and its services, and identifies authorized users of these services. Each member of the Stanford electronic community creates a unique SUNet ID and SUNet ID password for him/herself. SUNet IDs provide:
- Axess services
- Email service
- Storage space within Stanford's distributed file system
- Usenet newsgroups
- World wide web services, including serving of personal web pages on the Leland system and access to Stanford Web Resources
The SUNet ID together with SUNet ID password may serve in place of a signature on electronic forms. The SUNet ID password must remain confidential; it is a violation of University policy to permit another person to use your SUNet ID or password. It is a violation of University policy to use another's SUNet ID or SUNet ID password to misrepresent yourself in any way; such use can result in loss of student privileges or other disciplinary action.
The ID card serves as an identification card, an electronic key, and a debit card, allowing cardholders to use services for which they have privileges, to enter certain facilities, and to make purchases.
ID cards are available to registered students, faculty, academic staff, and regular staff. Students obtain their ID cards at the Student Services Center, Tresidder Union, 459 Lagunita Drive, 2nd Floor (650) 498-CARD). Faculty and staff obtain ID cards at George Forsythe Hall, 275 Panama Street, Room 190 (650-498-CARD).
Courtesy ID cards are available for spouses and domestic partners of the Stanford professoriate, academic staff, regular staff, and students. These cards may be obtained from the Stanford Card ID Office at Forsythe Hall. The spouse/partner courtesy ID card enables use of some campus services during terms for which the student is registered.
Visiting Scholars who are on campus for a minimum of one quarter and contribute to Stanford's mission by teaching or collaborating on Stanford research also receive ID cards and campus privileges during their stay on campus. These cards may be obtained from the Stanford Card ID Office at Forsythe Hall.
Library access and borrowing privileges are reserved for the Stanford professoriate, academic staff, regular staff, students, and others associated with the University with a need for such access.
ID cards bear a photograph of the cardholder. This photograph is maintained in an online database and, as stated in the "Directory Information" section of this bulletin, is available for classroom, student residence, and other use upon specific request and without student consent unless the student has designated that the photograph not be released. Photographs can be designated as private using the Privacy function of Axess.
Misuse of the ID card may result in discipline or administrative action.
For more information, see the Campus Card Service web site. For the complete policy on Stanford Identification Cards, see the Administrative Guide, 28-4 (pdf).
No person shall attend any class unless he or she is a fully registered student enrolled in the course or meets the criteria for auditors. Auditors are not permitted in courses that involve direct participation such as language or laboratory science courses, field work, art courses with studio work, or other types of individualized instruction (i.e., labs, seminars, case study, language, and activity courses are not permitted). Auditors are expected to be observers rather than active participants in the courses they attend, unless the instructors request attendance on a different basis. Stanford does not confer credit for auditing, nor is a permanent record kept of courses audited. Students who have been suspended are not permitted to audit.
Auditors may not join classes for the first time after the University's final study list deadline. Auditors are not eligible for other University services or privileges including housing, health insurance (Cardinal Care), Vaden clinical services, and the University health plan. The University Registrar reviews for approval any other services or privileges that may be sought.
The Auditor status is available to Stanford faculty or staff members for no fee. Otherwise, the Permit to Attend fee is assessed. The Application for Auditor or Permit to Attend (PTA) Status is required. In all cases of auditing, the instructor, department administrator, and the Office of the University Registrar's prior approvals are required. Further information is available from the Office of the University Registrar or the Student Services Center.